wages for a man well used to a farm run from $20  to $25 per month and board for 6 or 7 months beginning about April  1st  to 15th.    If a man has $400 or  $500 capital he can get land  to homestead, he will have to pay $10 for his entry for 160 acres as a homestead, on this he will have to break and  crop at least 15 acres the first three years.     However if he has the capital to start he can purchase a yoke of oxen at from $60 to $80, a breaking plow for $16 to $26, and a set of harness for oxen at $8 or $10 Either a new or second hand wagon, if new this will cost $65   or   $70,   if  not from $20 to $30.    Then   a   house will have to be built; if  logs   are  convenient this will cost, besides the man's own labor, about $250 and it   will   take say $100 to   pay expenses and keep his family for the six months, in all $350, leaving $150.  This should by all means be put into stock, two fair grade  cows will cost $40 each, say  $80, 2 yearling heifers  about $15   each, a good brood sow say $15; cow if any money is left you will make no   mistake in purchasing 25 or 30 fowls.  A man will be bet¬ter equipped with this than one out of ten were when I came in 17 years ago, as I had to borrow $20 to pay for  the entrance of my land.  I worked out the first year at an average  price of  $30 per month and board.  Now myself and family have two thousand four hundred acres of good land (2,400) and a large stock of horses and cattle in  all worth about thirty five thousand dollars ($35,000) and less than $7,000 to  pay on it all. To start with keep out of debt, shun it as you would Satan him¬self, I have had a taste of it and  can speak from   experience—don't   try it. If I had taken a canny Scotchman's advice in full I would have had a  much more pleasant time.  It was "Keep out of debt, take off your  coat and do your own work"—the latter two I followed pretty closely but the former gave me a good deal of trouble.  If you don't like farming and intend to make a home in Manitoba you had better not  come, or if you expect to make a fortune in 2 or3 years and return to some milder clime don't come, as it takes time, intelligence and industry to accomplish this in any country or climate.

I will next take up the subject of farming for profit as the profit in any business is the principal part of it. First on say a  ¼   section, 160 acres, with 150 acres broken. After two crops of wheat have been taken off 100 acres then there will still be 50 acres of new breaking, this put into wheat, and summer fallow 50 acres, which will give 100 acres for wheat crop the year after summerfallowing; then follow this up with 50 acres summerfallow each year, and there need be no fear of the profit in farming. I find that too many farmers labor under the impression that they can go on cropping with wheat indefinitely and the soil will not be ex¬hausted, this is a serious mistake. On this amount of land a man should have at least 3 good work horses and some kind of a 4th, one for driver, or if needed, to put on a gang sulky plough. There should be at least 3 good cows, hogs enough for home use, and at least 50 or 60 laying hens, also at least ¼  of an acre of garden well fenced and small fruit such as red and black

currants, raspberries and 20 or 30 roots of rhubarb, as all of these are grown success¬fully in Manitoba and if they are pro-perly taken care of will save a good deal of cash that will have to be paid out in the store. One very important point must not be overlooked, be careful about the seed you sow, have it good and sound, well cleaned, never sell the lest and sow the worst. Keep clear of outside grain for seed coming from either Ontario or the United States as noxious weeds have been imported with such seed, especially from the United States. Another part of farming must not be forgotten, don't let one load of manure be wasted as even on our best land it is worth $1.00 per load. If you cannot get it out in the busy season there are five months of slack time in the winter, spread it on the land you intend for summerfallow or for barley and if you have none of such land top dress your old meadow land and it will double the yield (for years to come) on such land. On a 1/4 section farmed as I have stated I know of at least two men who made a start and in 4 years purchased another ¼ section and one of them is now worth $8,000 or $9,000, the other at least $15000, one of them started with horses the other with oxen.

I will take up farming   a ½ section, as a man to crop to advantage should have this much land.  We now start with 320 acres  unbroken  land.  This can be purchased at from $ 8 to $10 per acre, one tenth cash the balance in from 5 to 10 years at 7 per  cent.  The first year ¼  section should  be broken, 120 of this should be put  into wheat,  the balance in oats, the second year another 100 acrcs should  be broken, the 120 acres of last year and this  will  make 220 acres for wheat the second year and still leave 40 acres for oats and barley; after this year 1/3 of  this  land should be summerfallowed, thus in  3  years it will all be in good order for crop and if properly labored will be clear of all weeds.  On a farm of this size at least 5 or 6 good horses should be kept as well as cattle, enough to make all the straw into manure and if so at least 20 acres can be  manured each winter, spreading the manure  direct from   the stables. If a machine can be had early enough   stook threshing will be the most profitable and if 7 or 8 miles from market only team out enough for pres¬sing demands,  put the rest in your granary till fall plowing is finished and you can then haul to market at less ex¬pense than earlier in the season.  In all cases get a machine that will stack the straw in the field and save at least all you can feed or bed your horses with as you can draw it easily in winter when time is not so valuable.  I have not mentioned roots in this paper, but at least a ½  acre of well prepared land should be put into potatoes each year and if you have the time turnips, mangolds and carrots can be grown successfully and to profit.

Jas. Dale

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